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    • Software Project Stages

      Continued From:- What Is Software Engineering?

      Consider this scenario . Doing things using a development methodology, and in a step by step manner, ensures successful product, regardless of which industry the product belongs to.
      At the end of this session, you will be able to:
      • Explain the concept of a Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC)
      • Describe the various stages in a Software Application Development Project, and
      • Identify the Elements of a Software Application Development Stage
      Software Engineering is not just Code Construction. Each Software Application that is created follows a well defined set of activities, and has a well defined Life Cycle from initiation to the retirement of the Software Application. Similar to a car manufacture, a software application development project has well defined stages that are implemented in a predefined fashion to create the software application.
      The Various Stages in a Software Development Life Cycle are Requirement, analysis, design, coding, testing, Implementation, and Maintenance/Post Implementation. In the next few pages, you will learn about each of these stages in detail .
      In the Software Requirements Stage, the required functionality or behavior of the software is identified by the Software Engineer. These Requirements are documented in the Software Requirements Specifications Document. The Analysis and Design stage, translates requirements into a representation of the software that can be assessed for quality before coding begins. In this stage, typical documents that get created are the functional specifications document, design documents, and the program specifications. In the coding stage, the executable that can be read by the computer is created. Individual modules of programs are assembled together to create the final executable of the software application.
      Once Code has been generated, program testing begins during the Testing stage. Testing process focuses on the logical internals of the software, ensuring all statements have been checked for correctness. It also focuses on the functional externals, that is, conducting tests to uncover errors and ensure that defined input will produce actual results that agree with the actual results. At the implementation stage, after all tests have shown that the completed software works as intended, it is deployed in its production environment. Implementation is a planned activity and steps pertaining to it are documented as part of the Roll-Out Plan. A series of checks and reviews are conducted in this stage to ensure that all components of the completed software have been installed correctly. Software undergoes change after it has been deployed and delivered to the customer. Change will occur because errors may be encountered, or because the software needs to be adapted to meet changes in its external or operating environment, or because the customer requires functional or performance enhancements. These are issues that are resolved during the Maintenance or Post Implementation stage.
      You will now learn about the basic building block of any stage. Basic building blocks of a Stage are Tasks. Activities explain how a task needs to be performed. See what each of them signifies. In the next few pages, you will learn in detail about elements of any software development stage.
      You will now learn about the various elements of a stage. The Entry Criteria provides inputs which can be documents or tasks. It is then followed by the Task or list of activities that are implemented to complete the process. The Verification consists of reviews and approvals that confirms adequacy of the activities done during the Task period. The stage ends with an Exit criteria which consists of work products or documents that may serve as an Entry Criteria for the next Stage.
      Here is an example that describes the Elements of the Requirements Stage. The Entry Criteria for Requirements Stage is the Business Need. For example, the client requires a system that will automate the process of banking according to his needs. Tasks of the Stage would include activities like requirement capture, requirement analysis, and requirements documentation. Work Products created in this stage could be completed requirements gathering checklists and Software Requirements Specifications. As part of Verification the completed SRS document will be reviewed by the Project Manager and approved by the Client Representative. Signed off SRS will be Exit Criteria for this stage, which would become the Entry Criteria for the next Stage, Analysis and Design.

      • The SDLC is a sequence of steps that organizes the development of a software product
      • The various stages in the SDLC are Requirement, Analysis, Design, Coding, Testing, Implementation, and Maintenance or Post implementation
      • The building blocks of any stage are Activities and Tasks.
      • The elements of a stage include Entry criteria, Task, Verification, and Exit criteria.

      Next Article:- Requirement Development And Management

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